Historical context

-  Although we might go back to Atapuerca - and it would not be incorrect -, suffice to take a look backward toward the end of the II World War to find an explicit concern in “The UN Charter” for “the maintenance of Peace and Cooperation among Nations” as a path leading to the creation of a more humane World Order.

-  Faced to the situation in which countries were left resulting from the Decolonization and Independence processes of both Peoples and Nations, there are many proposals and organizations, at all levels - local, regional, national, sectoral, government, not government, international... – saying they are devoted to Development Cooperation ... with diverse effects.

-  Starting with the declaration by the UN of the First Development Decade (UNGA. September, 1961) until present times, the evolution (and involution) of theories and practices on Development/Underdevelopment and Cooperation, has been very complex and the global balance measured by the results is not positive; what has not been, or is, an impediment for attaining progress in the efforts, proposals and organizations as well as the awareness degree when confronting problems and the ethical and political awareness in the search of global and local solutions that create conditions leading to Development.

-  The word “Development” having its own autonomy and significance - although still looking for a precise definition – was not generalized until the end of the 60s and almost always with strong adjective words trying to substantivize it: “economic”, “integral”, “harmonic”, “human”...

-  Research on Development - and its inseparable Underdevelopment -, since then, have been the center of the so-called Social or Human Sciences. Theories of Development have varied a lot and still they are not uniform – but this is not an inconvenient to contribute to its scientific, ethical, technical and political study from all perspectives and learning and human knowledge disciplines -. These different conceptions also underlie in both the Cooperation practices and policies - it could not be in any other way! - (by antonomasia we are referrred to “Cooperation” when we intend to speak of Development Cooperation of the Third World peoples – which was born prior to Bandung and it was self-understood as an alternative to the First and the Second - and the stereotyped ODA/APD of OECD and its CAD.

-  Clearly the 90’s with the UN Summits (Jomtiem ’90, Río’92; Viena’93, Cairo’94, Copenhague’95, Beijing’95, Rome’96, Istambul’96, Kiotto’97..., more or less “culminated”’ – at a downward - with that of the Millennium, and the successive ’quests’ (?) to make the AOD effective and its ’new architecture’ - Monterrey, Rome, Rabat, Paris, Accra... -), next to the UNDP Reports on Human Development, has produced a leap, even a qualitative one, to know from where and how it would be necessary to build Humanity’s new future with a true Human Development with Economic, Ecological and Social Sustainability, and a deep gender focus mainstreaming theories and concrete policies..., so that plain fulfillment can be obtained from the integrated system of All Human rights for all human beings. But it lacks the weapon: the political Will!

-  As a growing questioning/answer/previous, consequently and posterior proposal, once again it was the civil society with its thematic Networks and its World Social Forums the one that made the critical and organized awareness of the different peoples and sectors advance in a real alternative Globalization Movement imposed by the forces directly linked to International Economic power and to the Political power of some powers.

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